Grâce à la liberté dans les communications, des groupes d’hommes de même nature pourront se réunir et fonder des communautés. Les nations seront dépassées.
Friedrich Nietzsche (Fragments posthumes XIII-883)

07 - Martin Grime, Eddie, Keela


Les chiens sont déployés comme des instruments de recherche afin d'obtenir des preuves et de localiser des restes humains ou du sang humain.
Les chiens ne sont pas venus de Grande-Bretagne pour chercher une enfant enlevée mais pour chercher des preuves de sa mort, accidentelle ou non. Ils ont alerté à plusieurs endroits. Aucune corroboration forensique n'a pu être mise au jour. Il n'en demeure pas moins que les alertes des chiens doivent être prises en compte à titre d'indications.

Au moment de la mort, l'odeur émise par le corps humain subit une transformation. Celle-ci bien que non immédiatement détectable par les hommes, affecte la composition de l'odeur détectée par les chiens. Le corps traverse cinq stades de décomposition avant d'être squelettisé et les chiens sont dressés à réagir à l'éventail de toutes ces odeurs.
Il n'y a pas de procédés ou d'équipement de laboratoire aussi sensibles que le système olfactif du chien. L'instinct de chasse naturel du chien et sa capacité à détecter des odeurs ne peut être mise en échec.
À la différence des hommes qui ne se plaisent à sentir que l'odeur agréable d'un gâteau qui vient de sortir du four, le chien est capable de distinguer l'odeur de chaque ingrédient individuel de la recette, simplement en sentant le gâteau. Il peut localiser l'odeur même si celle-ci est mélangée à d'autres.
Quand quelqu'un meurt, la décomposition commence immédiatement, la synthèse des protéines s'arrête. Si rien ne maintient l'enveloppe de protection de l'estomac, les enzymes digèrent le corps de l'intérieur et produisent des acides aminés. Des bactéries s'en nourrissent.
Les chiens spécialement dressés pour trouver des cadavres ou des restes humains, y compris le résidu chimique qui reste quand un cadavre est déplacé, sont appelés "détecteurs de restes humains". Ces chiens sont capables de découvrir l'odeur d'un cadavre alors qu'il n'y a plus de preuve physique visible ou palpable.
Après la mort, les COV provenant des gaz produits par la décomposition, des cellules de desquamation de la peau, des débris volatiles, celulaires et bactériens enveloppant le corps se répandent dans l'air ambiant..
Des expériences ont montré que l'odeur résiduelle de restes humains peut rester un an dans un bâtiment sans grande perturbation humaine ou environnementale, même après que les objets (poreux) d'où provenaient les COV aient été enlevés.

 

CADAVER AND HUMAN BLOOD DETECTING DOGS SEARCH ASSET PROFILES
Licensing and accreditation
U.K., A.C.P.O. licensed and accredited cadaver dogs are trained and licensed on the basis of the relevant section of the Police Dog Training and Care manual. This involves the training of G.P. (General Purpose) dogs to alert to the presence of surface deposition and sub-surface deposition to approximately 2 feet. The dogs are deployed on long lines to search an area in large numbers.
The U.K. has also approximately six Police dog teams that have been trained exclusively on decomposing pig remains not for human consumption as specialist dogs to work off the leash to locate human remains in a wider variety of scenarios. Pig is used as it has been proven in training and operationally over the last 20 years to be a reliable analogue for human remains detecting training for dogs. The possession of human remains for the purpose of training dogs in the U.K. is not acceptable at this point in time.
Licensing is derived from anecdotal cases and is scenario based conducted over a period of a week, twice annually, it is conducted utilising independent A.C.P.O. authorised assessors. Continuation training is conducted on a daily basis and includes simple scent discrimination testing to large scale scenario based exercises.
Both dogs and I are licensed as two separate working teams. We are independently tested and licensed annually, normally at six monthly intervals as a 'rolling' programme to ensure best practice is maintained. They are tested to units of assessment prepared as a stand-alone system as these dogs are unique. Training records are maintained and are available if required.
All operational deployments are video recorded including a control sample find when appropriate.

Training and Cadaver scent
The dog, a scavenger, uses its olfactory system to locate food sources, identify its young, other pack members, enemies and predators over large distances. It can track its prey identifying a direction of travel. This entails the dog being able to discriminate the time difference between footsteps using the sense of smell. The reward of food and protection / close comfort provides the basis for a system to be adopted where the dog shows a willingness to respond in response to the reward. We are thereby able to 'train' the dog using conditioned responses to stimuli. Repetition and reward then ensure efficiency. Positive and negative reinforcement then shape the required behaviour in their role. Within the role of these dogs they are utilising basis survival instinct but have undergone behaviour shaping to alert the handler to their finding as opposed to consummation. Pavlov's theory is used in the case of the E.V.R.D. system of alert. He has been 'conditioned' to give a verbal alert when coming into contact with 'dead body scent'. The presence of tangible material is not required to produce the response merely the scent itself. Pseudo scent is an artificially chemically produced product that its manufacturers claim to resemble 'dead body scent'. Although some cadaver dog trainers have had limited success with its use in training, when tested on my dogs they showed no interest and it is not used as a training aid for them. 

Tous les chiens policiers britanniques, quelque soit leur domaine de compétence, doitvent avoir une licence pour participer à des interventions opérationnelles. Pour obtenir cette licence, ils doivent passer un test à la fin de l'entraînement et ensuite repasser un test tous les ans. Les critères requis sont établis par un comité de l'association des officiers de police et sont révisés régulièrement afin d'assurer que le dressage reflète les méthodes et critères les plus appropriés.
Le dressage et le travail opérationnel sont enregistrés et les enregistrements peuvent être utilisés dans les instructions en tant que témoignant de la fiabilité du tandem maître chien/chien et dans la mesure où les résultats obtenus témoignent de leur compétence.
In my role as advisor to the U.S. Justice Department I have facilitated assessment of numerous cadaver search dog teams in the United States. These dogs are exclusively trained using human cadaver sources. When I introduced decomposing pig cadavers into training assessments 100 % of the animals alerted to the medium. (The products were obtained from whole piglet cadaver not processed food for human consumption). The result from scientific experiments and research to date is suggestive that the scent of human and pig decomposing material is so similar that we are unable to 'train' the dog to distinguish between the two. That is not to say that this may not be possible in the future. 
Et pourtant des recherches ont montré que les empreintes olfactives du cochon et de l'homme ne sont pas très proches.
 The odour target of cadaver is scientifically explained through 'volatile organic compounds' that in a certain configuration are received by the dog as a receptor. Recognition then gives a conditioned response 'ALERT'. Despite considerable research and analytical investigation the compounds cannot as yet be replicated in laboratory processes. Therefore the 'alert' by dogs without a tangible source cannot be forensically proven at this time. Cadaver scent cannot readily be removed by cleaning as the compounds adhere to surfaces.
The scent can be 'masked' by bleach and other strong smelling odours but the dog's olfactory system is able to isolate the odours and identify specific compounds' and mixes. Cadaver scent contamination may be transferred in numerous scenarios. Any contact with a cadaver which is then passed to any other material may be recognised by the dog causing a 'trigger' indication.

EVRD
'Eddie' The Enhanced Victim Recovery Dog (E.V.R.D.) will search for and locate human remains and body fluids including blood in any environment or terrain. The initial training of the dog was conducted using human blood and still born decomposing piglets. The use of human remains for the purpose of training dogs in the U.K. is not acceptable at this point in time. The importance of this is that the dog is introduced to the scent of a decomposing body NOT FOODSTUFF. This ensures that the dog disregards the 'bacon sandwich' and 'kebab' etc that is ever present in the background environment. Therefore the dog would remain efficient searching for a cadaver in a café where the clientele were sat eating bacon sandwiches. He has additionally trained exclusively using human remains in the U.S.A. in association with the F.B.I. En 2005 Eddie (et Keela) ont "fait un stage" dans la première body farm états-unienne qui dépend de l'université du Tennessee et où se trouvent des cadavres dans de multiples stades de décomposition. The enhanced training of the dog has also involved the use of collection of 'cadaver scent' odour from human corpses using remote technical equipment which does not contact the subject. This method is comparable to the simulation of cross contamination. It does however differ in that the remote scent samples recovery does not involve subject matter and therefore is a 'pure' scent sample. The dog has since initial training gained considerable experience in successfully operationally locating human remains and evidential forensic material.
The E.R.V.D. has successfully in training and in operational casework located human cadavers, whether in the whole or parts thereof, deposited surface or sub-surface to a depth of approximately 1 metre shortly after death (though precise times are not determinable) to the advanced stages of decomposition and putrefaction through the skeletal. This includes incinerated remains even if large quantities of accelerant have been involved. The dog has successfully in training and in operational casework located a human cadavers in water either from the bank side or when deployed in a boat.  
Au cours du dressage et en opération Eddie a réussi à localiser des cadavres humains, ou entiers ou démembrés, sur une surface ou en dessous, à une profondeur d'environ 1 m de peu de temps après la mort (sans temps précis déterminable) à un état avancé de décomposition jusqu'à l'état de squelette. Ceci inclut les restes calcinés, même si de grandes quantités d'accélérant ont été employées.
The dog has also been trained to identify cadaver scent contamination where there is no physically retrievable evidence, due to scent adhering to pervious material such as carpet or the upholstery in motor vehicles. 
Le "contaminant" est l'objet poreux dans lequel les COV (composés odorants volatiles) venant du cadavre ont pénétré.
Whereas there may be no retrievable evidence for court purposes this may well assist intelligence gathering in Major Crime investigations. This may be achieved by the dog being deployed directly to the subject area or by scent samples being taken by remote means on sterile gauze pads. The gauze pads are then 'screened' in a line - up formation with the inclusion of a number of control samples and blank sterile pads.
The dog will alert to the presence of cadaver scent whether it is at source or some distance away from a deposition site. 

Le chien alerte en présence d'une odeur de cadavre, que ce soit à la source ou à une certaine distance du cadavre.
 
This enables the use of the dog to identify the venting or exhaust channels of the scent through fissures in bedrock or watercourses. A geophysical survey of the area will then reduce the size of the search area.
The dog may be used to screen clothing, vehicles or property in a suitable environment. This is completed in a scent discrimination exercise where controls may be included to increase assurity.

False Alerts and ST-100 Unit
'False' positives are always a possibility; to date Eddie has not so indicated operationally or in training. In six years of operational deployment in over 200 criminal case searches the dog has never alerted to meat based and specifically pork foodstuffs designed for human consumption. Similarly the dog has never alerted to 'road kill', that is any other dead animal. 


Les fausses alertes positives sont toujours une possibilité. Jusqu'à l'été 2007 où il est allé à PDL, Eddie a eu l'occasion d'alerter en contexte opérationnel et en contexte de dressage. EN 6 ans de déploiement opérationnel recouvrant plus de 200 recherches dans des affaires criminelles, Eddie n'a jamais alerté à la viande animale et spécialement au porc destiné à la consommation humaine (il a été dressé avec de la viande de porc). Il n'a pas non plus alerté au gibier, autrement dit à des cadavres d'animaux.
 
My experience as a trainer is that false alerts are normally caused by handler cueing. All indications by the dog are preceded by a change in behaviour.
This increased handler confidence in the response. This procedure also stops handlers 'cueing' and indication. The dogs are allowed to 'free search' and investigate areas of interest. The handler does not influence their behaviour other than to direct the search.
I have developed the training of the E.V.R.D. to include the screening of scent pads taken from motor vehicles, property or scenes by a Scent Transference Unit. Operational use of the ST-100 is in a developmental and evaluative stage used in conjunction with selective FBI casework. The unit is in a two-part design. The main body is a battery operated electrical device that draws air in at to the front and exhausts through the rear. There is no 're-circulation' of air within the unit. The second part is a 'grilled' hood that fits to the main body. A sterile gauze pad is fitted into the hood. When operated, the unit draws air through the hood and the sterile gauze pad and exhausts through ports to the rear. 'Scent' is trapped in the gauze, which may then be forensically stored for use within scent discrimination exercises.
The ST-100 is cleaned following use in such a manner that no residual scent is apparent. This is checked by control measures where the dog is allowed to search a given area where the ST-100 is secreted. Any response by the dog would suggest contamination. Tests have shown that the decontamination procedures are effective in this case with the dog NOT alerting to the device when completed. Use of the ST-100 is recommended when subject vehicles, property, clothing, premises are to be forensically protected from contamination by the dog, and for covert deployment. At all other times best practice would be for the dog to be given direct access.

MG cite plusieurs affaires que Eddie a contribué à résoudre.


CSI Human Blood Detecting Dog
'Keela' The Crime Scene Investigation (C.S.I.) dog will search for and locate exclusively human blood. She will locate contaminated weapons, screen motor vehicles and items of clothing and examine crime scenes for human blood deposits. She will accurately locate human blood on items that have been subjected to 'clean up operations' or having been subjected to several washing machine cycles. In training she has accurately located samples of blood on property up to thirty-six years old.
In order for the dog to locate the source the blood must have 'dried' in situ. Any 'wetting' once dried will not affect the dog's abilities. Blood that is subjected to dilution by precipitation or other substantial water source prior to drying will soak into the ground or other absorbent material. This may dilute the scent to an unacceptable level for accurate location. 
It is possible however that the EVRD will locate the scent source as it would for 'dead body' scent. Forensic testing may not produce evidence but any alert may provide intelligence to support other factors in the investigation of a crime.

Keela is trained specifically using human blood obtained through the haematology department at Sheffield Northern General Hospital. The blood undergoes strict screening for disease and contamination prior to use. The samples are from a wide range of ethnic backgrounds and are from both male and female sources.
Keela's training and licensing is based around the level of 1 positive screening sample introduced into 200 control articles or 1 positive sample introduced during 6 hours searching in relation to crime scenes or vehicles.

Eddie et Keela travaillent en tandem de manière à éliminer tout risque de faux positif. Eddie a d'abord été dressé à reconnaître le sang humain et ensuite à reconnaître l'odeur de décomposition du corps humain, tandis que Keela ne détecte que le sang humain. Eddie est donc envoyé en premier sur l'endroit à inspecter. S'il alerte, en l'absence de restes humains visibles, alors on envoie Keela. Si celle-ci alerte aussi, alors on se trouve en présence de sang, au minimum, mais peut-être aussi en présence de cadavre + sang. Si Keela n'alerte pas, alors on sait qu'Eddie a alerté à l'odeur de résidus humains en décomposition. 2)
Quand MG dit qu'Eddie, l'EVRD, recherche et localise des restes humains et les fluides corporels incluant le sang, il parle de fluides produits par le corps en décomposition et non d'urine, de salive et de sperme. Eddie et Keela n'alerteraient à l'urine, au sperme, aux excréments, etc. que s'ils étaient mélangés à du sang.
 
Both dogs and I are licensed as two separate working teams. We are independently tested and licensed annually, normally at six monthly intervals as a 'rolling' programme to ensure best practice is maintained. They are tested to units of assessment prepared as a stand-alone system as these dogs are the only assets of their type in the world. Training records are maintained and are available if required.



Entre 1'15 et 7'25



Whilst it is stated that the E.V.R D. is originally trained using pig the following notes of guidance should be considered when assessing indications:

P In six years operational deployment in over 200 cases the dog has never alerted to meat based foodstuffs.

> The dog has never alerted to 'road kill'

P Alerts given by the dog where no obvious human remains are found are supported by forensic evidence I anecdotal witness accounts.
> The dog, a scavenger, uses its olfactory system to locate food sources, identify its young and other pack members, enemies and predators over large distances. It can track its prey identifying a direction of travel. This entails the dog being able to discriminate the time difference between footsteps using the sense of smell !
> The dog is an animal that's basic function in the wild is to scavenge food and procreate.
> In a domestic environment it responds to humans as a food source and bonds in the manner it would with other pack members.
> The reward of food and protection / close comfort provides the basis for a system to be adopted where the dog shows a willingness to respond in response to the reward. We are thereby able to 'train' the dog using conditioned responses to stimuli. Repetition and reward then ensure efficiency. Positive and negative reinforcement then shape the required behaviour in their role.
P Pavlov's theory is used in the case of the E.V.RD. system of alert. He has been 'conditioned' to give a verbal alert when coming into contact with 'dead body scent'. The presence of tangible material is not required to produce the response.
> Although the dog is 'trained' using reward based methods the behaviour shaping and enforcement regime produces an asset that does not false alert unlike electronic devices.
> Pseudo scent is a chemically produced product that its manufacturers claim to resemble 'dead body scent'. Although some trainers have had limited success when tested on my dogs they showed no interest.
> Operational finds backed by forensic corroboration have shown that the system adopted by me in the training of the dogs is both effective and efficient. Acting in my role of advisor to the U.S. Justice Department I have facilitated assessment of numerous cadaver search dog teams in the United States. These dogs are exclusively trained using human cadaver sources. When I introduced
pig based products into training assessments 100%! of the animals alerted to the medium.
> The result from scientific experiment and research to date would tend to support the theory that the scent of human and pig decomposing material is so similar that we are unable to 'train' the dog to distinguish between the two. That is not to say that this may not be possible in the future.
> The odour target of cadaver is scientifically explained through 'volatile compounds" that in a certain configuration are received by the dog as a receptor. Recognition then gives a conditioned response 'ALERT'. Despite considerable research and analytical investigation the compounds cannot be replicated in laboratory processes. Therefore the 'alert' by dogs without a tangible source cannot be forensically proven at this time.
> 'Dead body scent' cannot be removed by cleaning. The compounds adhere to surfaces. The scent can be 'masked' by bleach and other strong smelling odours but the dog's olfactory system is able to separate odour and identify specific compounds' and mixes to cellular level. A similar system would be a device similar to an electron microscope.
> In training the dog has accurately alerted to a 1 cm cube of pork soaked in petrol for 1 week and then burnt until only a residue remains.
>The dog's olfactory system is so highly developed that it continues to be efficient at cellular level:
Distinguish the time difference between footprints to give a direction of travel.
Distinguish live from dead within minutes.
Distinguish human blood from other species where the chemical constituent parts are identical.
Identify the EXACT location of blood so small in size that when forensically recovered will NOT provide a full DNA strand despite low copy DNA analysis.
> Scientists accept that there is no forensic testing equipment as discriminatory as the dogs olfactory system at this present moment in time.
>All research and training of the dogs within this program is completed in conjunction with a team of scientists for differing fields of expertise. They have in the past and will continue to endorse the dogs uses within the field of homicide investigations.
 

9) Réponses de Martin Grime - Mission rogatoire
14.05.2008

I am a retired police offer, previously at the service of the South Yorkshire police. Between August 1-8, 2007, and while working for the South Yorkshire police, I collaborated with the Judicial Police, Portugal, as regards their Operations Task Force.
On the 17th of August 2007, I completed a report for the Head of Investigations of the Judicial Police, which was submitted by the Leicestershire Police. This report is exhibited as MG/1 and identified by the label bearing my signature. The Judicial Police is in possession of the originals of the search reports and the videos showing all searches performed and the reaction of the dogs. In addition to the report, Sam Harkeness of the Progresso National Police Agency sent me by email several written questions sent by the Judicial Police together with a request for a written deposition. This deposition was submitted without me having seen or having knowledge of the final report from the forensic agency responsible for analyzing the evidence submitted in this case.

Questions (de la PJ) and Answers:

* Could you explain the methodology regarding the performance of the dogs in the scope of the undertaken searches ?
Please refer to my original report included in the summary (MG/1).
* Could you provide a thorough description of the dogs' skill and orientation, as well as an interpretation of the dogs' indications in the specific cases ?
Please refer to my original report included in the summary (MG/1).
The interpretation of any alert is given when the dogs recognize a specific odour as a result of a response to the behaviour for which they were trained. This response must then be submitted to a forensic examination in order to draw conclusions.
* In order to establish the accuracy of the dogs' performance with respect to the alerts given when recognizing blood and a body, to what extent are these indications viable in this particular case ?
The dogs' alerts are to be considered as an area of interest or possible testing. When specific and reliable this can only be measured for confirmation. In this case in particular, where the dogs alerted there was confirmation by positive results from the forensic examinations. It is the investigators' responsibility to apply the results of the forensic analysis to the suspects, witnesses and crime scenes.
* Based upon the dogs' behaviour, is it possible to distinguish between a strong signal and a weak signal ?
The dogs' passive CSI alert provides an indication as per their training and does not vary. They only give an alert when they are 'positive' that the target of the odour is present and immediately accessible. If they had any doubts they would not give an alert. EVRD gives an alert by means of a vocal bark. The variations in the vocal alert can be explained by many reasons such as 'thirst' or 'lack of air due to effort'. Every alert can be subject to interpretation, it has to be confirmed. The signals of an alert are only just that. Once the alert has been given by the dog, it is up to the investigator/forensic scientist to locate, identify and scientifically provide the evidence of DNA, etc.
* Can you confirm if the signal given regarding the stuffed toy corresponds to a concrete alert of detection of a cadaver, or a mere trick played by the dog ?
The dogs were not taught any 'tricks'. EVRD 'signalled' the toy, which at my request was retained by the Judicial Police for future forensic analysis. I have no knowledge of the results of any forensic analysis on the toy.
* With respect to the cadaver odour on Kate's clothes, could it be undoubtedly affirmed that those clothes had been in contact with a cadaver ?
OR
Could the alert have been given because the clothes had been in contact with other items of clothing, surfaces or objects that could previously have touched a cadaver, thereby allowing the odour to be transferred ?
There is always a possibility of contamination of odours by transferral. EVRD does not make a distinction; he responds with a certain behaviour for which he was trained when he recognizes an odour. He does not identify the reasons for the presence of the odour nor does he identify suspects. Forensic confirmation and specialized investigation methods will determine the reasons and the suspicions. In order to undoubtedly affirm there must be a confirmation of the alert signals made by the dog.
* The dog EVRD also alerts to blood from a live human being or only from a cadaver ?
The dog EVRD is trained using whole and disintegrated material, blood, bone tissue, teeth, etc. and decomposed cross-contaminants. The dog will recognize all or parts of a human cadaver. He is not trained for 'live' human odours; no trained dog will recognize the smell of 'fresh blood'. They find, however, and give the alert for dried blood from a live human being.
* Taking into account the signals of CSI, could the dog alert to other biological fluids ?
The dog that alerts to human blood is trained exclusively for this purpose, and includes its components, plasma, red cells, white cells and platelets. Given the nature of the training, the dog will not alert to urine, saliva, semen sweat, nasal secretion, vaginal secretion or human skin unless these are mixed with blood. The components of blood are approximately:
Red cells 40-50%
Plasma 55% (of which 95% is water)
White cells
Platelets
DNA can only be removed from white cells.
This would suggest that, of the samples signalled by the dog looking for human blood, approximately 5% are available for DNA tests.
* Is there any chance, however remote, of any confusion ?
The dogs do not get confused. They transmit a behavioural response inspired by the recognition of the odour for which they were trained.
* How long does a cadaver have to be in contact with a surface or an object for the odour to be detected ?
Cross-contamination is immediate.
* How long can a trace of blood remain at a scene and be detected by the CSI dog ?
During both training and operations, the CSI dog correctly located and signalled the presence of blood from 1960. This is not at all surprising. If enough blood is present so that the dog can recognize its odour, he will locate it and alert to its presence. There is no time restriction as regards the recognition of the odour by the dog. Blood, however, is subject to deterioration such as time and other natural processes such as dilution due to rain and other reactive chemical agents.
* Can the dog mix up traces of human odours with others that are non-human ?
I cannot comment on what the dogs think. However, from a forensic point of view and from confirmations of scientific testimonies, the dogs appear to be extremely exact. But, forensic confirmation is required in all cases so as to be included as proof. The CSI dog is trained using only human blood. And using a wide spectrum of donors to ensure that the dog does not individualize them.
EVRD used to be trained using swine (pigs) as their odour is the closest to that of humans. But most of the time, however, the dog was trained using the odour of a human cadaver. Operationally, the dog has ignored large amounts of animal remains/bones when locating human decomposition.
* Based upon your experience with the dogs, can you specify whether the positive signals given by them have always matched the scientific results ?
I cannot. In this case, for example, not all the alert signals have been investigated by the appropriate agencies in order to provide forensic comparations, in spite of indications to the contrary. It also should be taken into account that the procedures for forensic testing are still less discriminating than the system of dogs' smell.
During training, the dogs are barely rewarded for positive alert signals regarding targets of known substances.
* At any time, did Gerald McCann address, either in Portugal or the United Kingdom, the performance of the dogs in this case ?
I never met nor spoken to Gerald McCann. However I do know that he addressed my head supervisor at the time, the South Yorkshire Head of Police, or Mr. Meredith Hughes.