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Lettre du cabinet Morais Leitao, Galvao Teles, Soares da Silva
To the Criminal Instruction Judge and the Public Prosecutor (de Portimão) - 28.07.2008
Cette lettre a évidemment suscité une réponse.
The Association of Chief Police Officers, The Chief Constable of Leicestershire, The Serious Organised Crime Agency, police and legal authorities in the United Kingdom and Crimestoppers, all already identified in the files, are here represented by Lawyers Rui Patricio and Tiago Felix da Costa, from the company Morais Leitao, Galvao Teles, Soares da Silva and Associates and submit the following explanation and request:
Within the sphere of this collaboration, different information was provided by the requesting entities to the Portuguese authorities, such as, for example: the identification of potential suspects, identified by the requesting entities as sexual offenders or potential sexual offenders, techniques and police methods used by the requesting entities within the scope of their attributions, Intelligence, forensic reports and information, analytical searches, amongst others.
The requesting entities recognise that part of the material provided by them was in the sequence of the Letters of Request. The requesting entities have always understood that this material would be part of the current process files. However, a large part of the information was provided in an informal manner, expedited spontaneously, so as to guarantee the speed and efficiency of the investigations, namely those covered by International and Community Rights applicable to legal and police cooperation.
Il est amusant de lire qu'en grande partie les informations fournies par les requérants l'ont été de manière informelle. On songe en particulier à tout ce qui ne l'a pas été du tout ! Comme les données médicales et financières des MC, comme les témoignages de leurs amis Gaspar, envoyés à la PJ six mois plus tard, bien qu'ils mettaient en cause David WP et Gerald MC.
However, the requesting entities have learned that a decision was taken with relation to the state of the investigations, notice of its archiving having been given, in accordance with the public announcement of 21st July 2008.
In addition, the requesting entities have noticed that numerous elements from the process have been published during the last weeks in the Portuguese press. Indeed, since the 22nd July 2008 the final report of the PJ has already been circulating on the Internet.
Moreover, some of the press is clear concerning its intentions in relation to this process, as can be read, for example, in the editorial note on page 5 of the edition of the 22nd July 2008 of Correio da Manhã: The essence lies with the child who remains missing and for this reason the newspaper is not going to stop searching or questioning all the versions of all the protagonists, whatever inconveniences this may cause. The public interest lies here and not in the judicial secrecy.
As a result, a large part of the information mentioned previously, could become known by those subjects to the process and by the public in general, namely in the terms of article 86, no. 2 and 3, that are contrary to no. 6 and 90 of the CPP.
Article 86 : 2 - Le juge d'instruction peut, moyennant requête de l'arguido, de l'assistant ou de la victime, et après consultation du Ministère public, déterminer, par arrêté sans recours possible, que la procédure, au cours de la phase d'enquête, soit sujette au secret de justice, quand il entend que la publication nuit aux droits des sujets ou participants de la procédure.
3 - Chaque fois que le Ministère public entend que les intérêts de l'investigation ou les droits des sujets de la procédure le justifient, il peut déterminer l'application à la procédure, au cours de la phase d'enquête, du secret de justice, cette décision étant sujette à validation par le juge d'instruction dans un délai maximum de 72 heures.
Article 90 : 1 - Quiconque susceptible de manifester un intérêt légitime peut demander à consulter les actes d'un procès qui ne se trouve pas sous secret de justice et qu'on lui fournisse, à ses frais, copie, extrait ou certificat de la totalité ou d'une partie de l'acte. L'autorité judiciaire présidant la phase dans laquelle se trouve la procédure ou qui aurait proféré la dernière décision prend par arrêt la décision quant à la demande.
2 - L'autorisation de consultation de l'acte d'obtention d'une copie, d'un extrait ou d'un certificat s'effectue sous réserve d'interdiction, au cas où cela se présente, de narration des actes de la procédure ou de reproduction de leurs termes en recourant aux moyens de la communication sociale.L'article 6 doit être une coquille, il ne correspond pas au sujet.
What is in question, for example, are the data referring to identified sexual offenders or alleged sex offenders and even police information and Intelligence information, with the identification of individuals, telephone and trackback registers, entrances and exits from the UK and Portugal, amongst other aspects. The current inquiry is an international criminal inquiry of major relevance. In this sense, at the beginning of the inquiry, during a meeting there was an agreement of plain cooperation between the Portuguese and UK police and legal authorities, including the requesting entities. Under the shelter of this basic agreement, material was provided during the course of the inquiry, on an almost daily basis. Once the means of electronic communications between the UK and Portugal were established, detailed informative reports providing material were created, which were updated by the requesting entities, in an approximate manner. Given the enormous volume of material in question and the scarce time available, it is impossible to provide, within the current data, a discriminated register of each document and piece of data that was provided. However, it is possible to confirm that a considerable number of documents relating to the categories that will be mentioned further on was provided.
A. Material relating to condemned and suspected sex offenders
This category of material is of an extremely sensitive and delicate nature. During the meeting mentioned previously between representatives from the Portuguese authorities and UK police and legal authorities, it was recognised early on that this was a category of material that should be protected in all cases.It was equally recognised that this material would be provided by the police and legal UK authorities on the basis of the full understanding that this was confidential material, given that it contains the identification of names, last known addresses and other details relating to sex offenders, whether they were individuals who had already been condemned or just suspects. The divulgation of this material would obviously have an impact on rights of individual privacy and this would have negative effects on police work in general, given the fact that police Intelligence which is maintained exclusively for police purposes and criminal investigation, would enter the public domain, when this material should never be accessible to the general public.
In June 2008, the requesting entities were permitted to analysis two volumes with elements relating to sexual offenders or potential sexual offenders, provided by the requesting entities to the Portuguese authorities who claimed that these would be kept secret. From this analysis, the requesting entities concluded that part of the elements provided by them to the Portuguese authorities relating to sex offenders were not contained in these two volumes, which would permit the identification by all who had access to the process of sex offenders who were already condemned or just suspects. Therefore, the requesting entities consider that all the information about sex offenders that was provided to the Portuguese authorities should not be revealed, and urge the determination of the exact location of this material and its legal treatment in terms of what the law states as regards elements that should remain under secrecy, before the opening of the process files to the knowledge of subjects of the process or third parties.
The main preoccupation of the requesting parties is to respect the physical integrity of the condemned or alleged sex offenders, who would certainly suffer serious risks if their details appeared in the public domain under these circumstances.
B. Intelligence Reports
The eventual divulgation of Intelligence reports elaborated by the UK legal and police authorities and shared with Portugal in confidence would be very serious for different reasons. In the first place, much of this material is composed of non-proven information - in the sense that the information received by the UK authorities but which was not proven - in respect to what it says about individuals designated by name or identified by others. Its divulgation could result in an immediate and harmful impact on the individual rights of privacy and possibly to their physical integrity.
On the other hand, it is obviously of public, national and international interest that police forces share information/Intelligence in a rapid and effective manner. The risk of the Intelligence information coming into the public domain could put at risk the future international police cooperation between forces, this was also referred to in the meeting mentioned previously.This information was provided by the UK police and legal authorities in good faith and in the full conviction with relation to its strict confidentiality, therefore its public divulgation should be avoided. If the case of the divulgation of any of the Intelligence reports were to occur, it would be necessary to proceed to a qualitative analysis of the content of each of the reports referred to. This would be necessary in order to evaluate the risks run in the divulgation with relation to each specific situation.
Cette crainte que des informations de l'ordre du renseignement n'échouent dans le désordonné domaine public et ce faisant compromette dans l'avenir la coopération entre les forces de polices est amusante quand on observe cette coopération en situation, comme dans le cas de la reconstitution avortée, de la conclusion (ou du manque de conclusion) du rapport final du procureur bafouée, etc, etc.
C. Crimestoppers (Crime Combating Unit)
The Crime Combating Unit is a joint Investigation/Intelligence instrument of proved and recognised merit in combating crime, based in the UK. It works as a link between the police, the community and the media. It is a formally recognised system that provides people with a means of transmitting information to the police, without having to reveal their identity. The very essence of the Crime Combating Unit is anonymity. The UK police and legal authorities provide a level of protection for anonymous status under contractual terms established between them and the respective source from the Crime Combating Unit. Questions are not asked to identify the source and any material that could identify the source is edited or carefully reviewed. To proceed differently would constitute a breakdown in understanding between the police/legal authorities and the source. A high volume of information was provided by citizens by means of the Crime Combating Unit, which was transmitted to the Portuguese authorities. Under these circumstances, the requesting entities wish that, in relation to these documents, any reference to the Crime Combating Unit be eliminated and/or any information provided by any source, whoever it may be, or could be, susceptible to identification.
D. Communication between Police Forces
In this case and understandably, the level of cooperation between police forces has no precedent. Agreements and procedures were established between all parties, so that the investigation could proceed rapidly and on the widest level possible. This occurred based upon the full understanding that the communications in reference would be kept confidential. An eventual breakdown in this confidentiality would be extremely worrying, essentially due to two reasons:
Firstly, the material was provided under confidentiality and because of this there was no check, case by case, of the possible risks that could result from its exposure to the public domain. It should be noted that what is in question, amongst others, are the privacy rights of third parties. These rights could be rights that were not preventatively protected due to not all qualitative analysis having been carried out as regards any of the material in question;
Secondly, it is very probable that its divulgation could have negative effects on the exchange of material in the future, and could potentially prejudice important criminal investigations in the future.
E. Orientation of the NPIA
The NPIA - National Policing Improvement Agency - is a unit established in the UK in order to improve police techniques and methodology, namely by means of the presentation of orientation lines for use by police officers with relation to numerous aspects of police procedure. These orientations are always presented in the Police to Police regime and with the following epigraph: "To be defined as delicate material and for this reason, not to be divulged, with its basis being the fact of treating material, directly or indirectly, that would reveal techniques and methods used by a police officer within the scope of a criminal investigation. Material whose divulgation could lead to the perpetration of other crimes, or prejudice the prevention of crime detection".
A set of documents of this kind was provided to the Portuguese authorities with the aim of helping the work in the investigations underway. Bearing in mind the epigraph referred to and the Portuguese authorities' acceptance of the material, the requesting entities make clear their deep preoccupation in the face of the possibility that the material in reference could be divulged without having had the opportunity to analyse its contents in detail nor the risks that could be associated.
Apart from the fundamental rights of the subjects identified in the information provided, which could be seriously affected by their imminent divulgation, especially with regard to the alleged sex offenders, police materials, techniques, methods and protocols and Intelligence would be revealed, which are classified and confidential under UK Rights.
With regard to the above, the following caution and request are made:
On appréciera l'importance de la batterie légale déployée..
Convention de sauvegarde des Droits de l'Homme et des Libertés fondamentales
Constitution de la République portugaise
Article 1 : Le Portugal est une République souveraine fondée
sur la dignité
de la personne humaine et sur la volonté populaire et
à la construction d'une société libre,
Article 2 : La République portugaise est un État de droit
fondé sur la souveraineté populaire, sur le
l'expression et de l'organisation politique démocratiques,
respect des droits fondamentaux et des libertés essentielles
sur la garantie de leur exercice et de leur usage, ainsi que sur la
des pouvoirs et sur leur interdépendance, visant
la démocratie économique, sociale et culturelle
approfondir la démocratie participative.
Article 7 :
1. Le Portugal obéit, en matière de relations internationales, aux principes de l'indépendance nationale, du respect des droits de l'homme, des droits des peuples, de l'égalité entre les États, du règlement pacifique des différends internationaux, de la non ingérence dans les affaires intérieures des autres États et de la coopération avec tous les autres peuples pour l'émancipation et le progrès de l'humanité.
2. Le Portugal préconise l'abolition de l'impérialisme, du colonialisme et de toute autre forme d'agression, de domination et d'exploitation dans les relations entre les peuples, ainsi que le désarmement général, simultané et contrôlé, le démantèlement des blocs politico-militaires et l'établissement d'un système de sécurité collective afin de créer un ordre international
susceptible d'assurer la paix et la justice dans les relations entre les peuples.
3. Le Portugal reconnaît le droit des peuples à l'autodétermination, à l'indépendance et au développement, ainsi que le droit à s'insurger contre toutes les formes d'oppression.
4. Le Portugal conserve des liens privilégiés d'amitiéet de coopération avec les pays de langue
5. Le Portugal s'emploie à renforcer l'identité européenne et à intensifier l'action des États européens en faveur de la démocratie, de la paix, du progrès économique et de la justice dans
les relations entre les peuples.
6. Dans des conditions de réciprocité, dans le respect des principes fondamentaux de l'État de droit démocratique et du principe de subsidiarité et en vue de la réalisation de la cohésion économique, sociale et territoriale, d'un espace de liberté, de sécurité et de justice et de la définition et de la mise en oeuvre d'une politique étrangère de sécurité et de défense commune le Portugal peut passer des conventions sur l'exercice, en commun, en coopération ou par les institutions de l'Union des pouvoirs nécessaires à la construction et à l'approfondissement de
l'Union européenne. [modifié 2004]
7. En vue de la réalisation d'une justice internationale qui garantisse le respect des droits de la personne humaine et des peuples, le Portugal peut accepter la juridiction du Tribunal pénal international, dans les conditions de complémentarité et les autres termes établis par
le Statut de Rome.
Article 8 :
1. Les normes et les principes du droit international général ou commun font partie intégrante
du droit portugais.
2. Les normes figurant dans les conventions internationales
ratifiées ou approuvées entrent dans l'ordre
leur publication officielle et restent en vigueur aussi longtemps qu'elles engagent au niveau international l'État portugais.
3. Les normes émanant des organes
compétents des organisations
internationales auxquelles le Portugal participe entrent directement
l'ordre interne, dès lors que ceci figure dans leur
4. Les dispositions des traités relatifs
à l'Union européenne
et les normes édictées par ses institutions, dans
de leurs compétences respectives, sont appliquées
interne, conformément au droit de l'Union, dans le respect
l'État de droit démocratique. [alinéa nouveau 2004]
Article 9 : Les tâches fondamentales de l'État sont les suivantes :
b) garantir les droits fondamentaux et les
et le respect des principes de l'État de droit démocratique ;
1. L'intégrité morale et physique des personnes est inviolable.
2. Nul ne peut être soumis à la torture
ni à des
peines ou à des traitements cruels, dégradants ou
1. À chacun est reconnu le droit à
au développement de la personnalité, à
civile, à la citoyenneté, au respect et
à la réputation,
à l'image, à la parole et à la
protection de l'intimité
de la vie privée et familiale, et à la protection
contre toute forme
2. La loi établira des garanties effectives
et l'utilisation abusives ou contraires à la
de toute information relative aux personnes et aux familles. [modifié 2004]
3. La loi garantit la dignité personnelle et
génétique de l'être humain, notamment
lorsque de nouvelles
technologies sont développées et mises en
pratique et en
cas d'expérimentation scientifique.
4. La privation de la citoyenneté et les
la capacité civile ne peuvent intervenir que dans les cas et
les formes prévus par la loi, et en aucun cas pour des
Article 27 : 1. Toute personne a droit à la liberté et
à la sécurité.
Article 32 :
2. Tout prévenu est présumé
ce que sa condamnation soit devenue définitive. Le jugement
avoir lieu dans les plus brefs délais compatibles avec les
de la défense.
8. Sont nulles toutes les preuves obtenues par la torture,
l'atteinte à l'intégrité physique ou
morale de la
personne, l'immixtion abusive dans la vie privée, dans le
la correspondance ou les télécommunications.
Article 7 - Spontaneous exchange of information1.Within the limits of their national law, the competent authorities of the Member States may exchange information, without a request to that effect, relating to criminal offences and the infringements of rules of law referred to in Article 3(1), the punishment or handling of which falls within the competence of the receiving authority at the time the information is provided.2.The providing authority may, pursuant to its national law, impose conditions on the use of such information by the receiving authority.3.The receiving authority shall be bound by those conditions
The Portuguese Law itself protects confidentiality of information transmitted within the scope of international legal cooperation, as laid down unequivocally in article 149-1 of Law 144/99 of 31st January, which could in this way also be in violation. It would be appropriate to check whether, the informants were told of the application of articles 16 and 19 of Law 93/99 of 14th July and whether they were contemplated or pre-supposed. It will correspond to the Criminal Instruction Judge to determine the upholding of the secret of justice about all the elements identified above, in terms of article 86-7 of the Penal process Code and other constitutional norms and principles and of the International Law that could be applicable if these have not yet been determined.
Article 86-7 : La publication n'inclut pas les données de nature privée qui ne constituent pas des moyens de preuve. L'autorité judiciaire spécifie, par arrêté, officieusement ou sur requête, les éléments relativement auxquels le secret de justice se maintient, ordonnant, si nécessaire, la destruction des données ou leur restitution à la personne concernée.Only in this way will the necessary concordance between fundamental rights and constitutional principles and International Law be guaranteed in the case of conflict in this concrete case, also complying with the principle of proportionality consecrated in article 18, no. 2 of the Fundamental Law.
It should also be said that the divulgation of information from the process files that refers to personal data of individuals and who were in no way indicated in the current inquiry would also be an attack on the most elemental rights of personality and even on physical integrity. On the other hand, the exceptional regulations foreseen in the protection of witnesses mentioned previously, covered by Law 101/2001 0f 25th August and above all in the State Secret Law (Law 6/94 of 7th April) permit the consideration of other rights, interests and values that are constitutionally protected within the domain of the penal process. It is not necessary to mention that all that could be considered to be 'means of proof' would obligatorily need to be kept outside of the judicial secrecy, in the sense that the rights of the arguidos, those of the offended parties and the assistentes and those of the public in general are necessarily superimposed on the rights of third parties who are the object of the information provided, on the right to security and the international rights referred to previously. The argument that article 86 no. 7 of the CPP does not permit the Criminal Instruction Judge to ponder all the rights and interest in question should not be advanced, considering the logic of practical concordance, being previously limited to maintaining the judicial secrecy only for the 'elements' that were not considered to be 'means of proof'.
Article 18 - Force juridique
2. La loi ne peut restreindre les droits, les libertés et les garanties que dans certains cas expressément prévus par la Constitution. Les restrictions devront se limiter à ce qui est nécessaire à la sauvegarde d'autres droits ou intérêts protégés par la Constitution.
Such an understanding would result in material unconstitutionality of the norm that id extracted from articles 86-1/2/3/7/8/9b), 89-6 and 90-1 of the CPP, when interpreted in the sense that the Instruction Judge is not appropriate to maintain the judicial secrecy about means of proof that doe not sustain a decision for accusation or for archiving, amongst others, to ponder the fundamental rights of third parties that are identified in these elements and (or the information transmitted confidentially by the legal authorities or foreign police forces and also when interpreted in the sense that the fundamental rights of personality and national and international security cannot, in the concrete case, be superimposed upon the right to defence of the arguidos in the penal process, as this would be a violation of that laid down in articles 2 and 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights (voir plus haut) and 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 25, 26-1, 27-1 32-2/8, 18-2/8 (voir plus haut, mais 18-8 semble une coquille) of the Portuguese Constitution and article 7 of the EU Convention related to Mutual Legal Assistance in Penal Material (voir plus haut) of the 29th May 2000, ratified by the Decree of the President of the Republic no. 53/2001 of 16 October 2001 which entered into force in Portugal on 23rd August 2005.
In spite of all that it mentioned previously the requesting entities claim to make it absolutely clear that they do not claim in any way to interfere or prejudice the proceedings of the current process. In truth, this requirement constitutes the possible processional way, destined to protect the fundamental rights of all the individuals who could be affected by the aim of the judicial secrecy about the elements in question, especially the internal security in Portugal and the UK and international and European security in general, the integrity of policing and investigation methods throughout the world, safeguarding in this way, the future of this kind of cooperation.
It is also certain that the requesting parties remain available to collaborate or assist the Portuguese authorities in the identification of all the documents that were provided by the requesting entities and in the evaluation of associated risks. In these terms, we request from Your Excellency - in adhesion or in complement of any other identical requirement already presented, or for the case or with relation to the elements already mentioned - the following instruction:
A. The maintaining of the judicial secrecy about all the elements in the process that were provided by the requesting entities to the Portuguese authorities outside of the scope of the formal requests made, in these terms and with legal consequences;
Or in the case that this is not considered,
B. The maintaining of the judicial secrecy concerning all the elements of the files from categories A and C identified above that were provided by the requesting entities to the Portuguese authorities outside of the scope of the formal requests, in these terms and with legal consequences;
And, in either case,
C. The delivery to the requesting parties of a CD with the information relating to the process and all its annexes, so that the requesting entities can carry out a qualitative analysis of all the elements provided by them and which figure in the process;
D. Whilst there is no final decision about the above, that there should be an immediate and provisional suspension of the access to the process, for the elements in the categories referred to above or those about which there are doubts as to which of the categories they belong to, either by the subjects and participants in the process, or third parties, in these terms and with legal consequences.